Separation Anxiety

Anxiety in children is caused by several factors, of which the most pregnant is how they are treated at home. When left untreated, anxiety crystallises into a more concrete form. As a child enters adulthood, it results in avoidance behaviour, and can make a person phobic or shy. Anxiety disorders can begin when a child is as young as 6-8 months old. The more anxious parents are, the more likely the child is to suffer from anxiety. Anxiety is a phenomenon of human nature, and mild pangs of anxiety in new situations are absolutely normal.
Anxiety can even be beneficial because it serves as an adaptive response in many difficult situations. Therefore, the mere presence of anxiety during separation from parents is not a sign of pathology. It is a normal phenomenon in a child's development, especially when he is 6-8 months old.
But when we speak of pathological anxiety, we speak of an anxiety disorder that gradually becomes established, which compromises adaptation and child development. Events during pregnancy and birth, or unpleasant sensations, can make a child more vulnerable to something that generates tension.
Both psychological and situational factors can trigger natural anxiety. But if a child has a structure around her, such as anxious parents, then you can establish a case of chronic anxiety. Some stimuli that are experienced are so intensely negative, they may even trigger pathological anxiety.
Anxiety arises at the age of around 6-8 months when a baby experiences discomfort, cries and gets upset in the presence of a stranger. This shows that a child is distinguishing a familiar face from a strangers. It is a completely normal and healthy reaction, but may lead to separation anxiety. In situations where the mother or caregiver of the child has to leave him with someone else, the child despairs, his heart races, face turns red, and he cannot be controlled or pacified.
The child may not want to go to daycare or school, and his school performance may fall gradually. This is the most common symptom - but not always, because the emotional bond with the teacher makes a big difference here.
I realise that, depending on the child, a stimulus that does not lead to some anxiety in a crisis can generate anxiety in another situation for those who are predisposed to it.
A good relationship can prevent chronic anxiety. The way parents, babysitters, grandparents or anyone else who cares for the child deal with life situations is important. If a person already has a tendency to get anxious and tense when everyone else panics, it can only intensify.
What we need to have as a rule is: The less anxiety transmitted to the child, the better. We have to calm the child down and protect him. Thus he learns that there are many ways to evaluate an issue and deal with it besides getting anxious.
To counter separation anxiety, parents need to spend quality time with their children. If a child feels safe in the presence of his mother early in life, the tendency to get anxious is minimised.
We know that symptoms of anxiety are relatively common in children and adolescents, and chronic and pathological anxiety, including separation anxiety, is a clinical problem that is increasingly common in modern times. All professionals dealing with children and adolescents must be aware of the possible manifestations of anxiety in this age group, which are:
1. The child has symptoms that cannot be classified as normal behaviour;
2. Anxiety significantly impairs the child's functioning;
3. The symptoms of anxiety persist for an inappropriate length of time.
Such anxiety can be debilitating and stressful for families. Therefore, treatment is more effective, and has excellent results if the disorder is diagnosed early and correctly. Diagnosis is important because children with separation anxiety often face difficulty in performing daily activities, attending school, staying with friends, going on tour and even maintaining normal sleeping habits hildren with the disorder suffer a lot when separated from parents. Symptoms can arise even at the mere mention of a possible future separation. When separated from home or parents, the child urgently needs to know their whereabouts and feels the need to stay in constant contact, for example with repeated phone calls.
They have frequent nightmares about separation. They also experience extreme longing and feel sick (fever, diarrhoea and vomiting) due to the discomfort of being away from home, or when a person they bond with is absent.
Other symptoms include worrying that something bad might happen to them or to their parents, refusal to go to school, and reluctance to sleep alone or away from the parents. Outside the home, they may experience social withdrawal, apathy, sadness or have difficulty concentrating.
Concerns about death are common, as well as social avoidance. The child may feel that no one likes him and/or that somebody wants to kill him. They may also exhibit aggressive behaviour such as anger at the person forcing separation. They can also report unusual perceptual experiences such as imagining people or frightening creatures in the room trying to pick them up, and a feeling that someone is watching them.
A child's demands for attention, affection and love often become a source of frustration for parents, causing resentment and conflict in the family. Sometimes children with anxiety are described as overly meticulous, obedient and eager to please, worrying excessively about issues that adults usually think about (their own competence, what to wear the next day, which subject to choose at university, etc). Depression is also seen in patients with separation anxiety.

Take surprise in stride

Not everyone can deal with the surprise factor. When the unexpected happens, it can often lead to frustration. From the smallest of things such as the car breaking down and losing data on the computer to the end of a marriage and a loved one's death, some events are just difficult to stomach.

Psychoanalyst Melanie Klein said that people need to understand that frustration is a part of work and life. However, having to deal with unexpected surprises is often not a welcome thought.
Oddly enough, this behaviour begins in childhood, especially when the child gets whatever he asks for, whenever he wants it. Parents should deal with children firmly, even when it is easier to give in to their whims. Such children are likely to enter adulthood unable to cope with the surprises and disappointments of daily life.
Even when people are able to accept disappointment, they find it difficult to regain their emotional strength. This is often seen at the time of taking forced retirement or submitting a resignation, when a person often has to change their expectations and dreams drastically.
In times of conflict and crisis, unstable emotions and stress can lead to disease, anxiety and somatisation. Understanding that life is not always ideal does not mean that you must stop dreaming. You need to adapt as best as possible to what cannot be changed, and alternatively try to turn the loss into something more positive. If you think in a mature way, you must learn to intensely focus on time periods such as 'after' and 'from now on.'

The reinforcement of mature behaviour is necessary right from childhood, especially because many from the current generation would agree with phrases like, "I have everything I want," or, "My father gives me everything I ask for."
Children often behave irrationally when they cannot have their way. Parents sometimes give in to unreasonable demands when they are unable to spend enough time with their children. They end up easing their guilt by showering children with material gifts.
Knowing when to wait and when to resign oneself to life is an essential part of building a healthy and balanced personality. Adults who are unprepared for suffering and unpleasant events often break down and come close to losing control over their own lives.
Support groups help greatly in dealing with a personal loss or other problems such as alcoholism, drug abuse, Down syndrome, etc. They quickly help people adapt to the new reality and circumstances of a family member.
Basically our ability to deal with reality is hampered because we believe that once our day begins, it will end as planned. The possibility of setbacks is excluded, and somehow we feel omnipotent in relation to what we want to accomplish. Understanding one's own finitude and limitations is a big step in developing maturity and gaining acceptance of the surprise factor.

Non-verbal communication

Non-verbal communication is used by man right from birth. It includes gestures, looks and touch, and is as essential as verbalisation, because human beings manage to convey rejection, affection, empathy, and of course, neglect and love, through it. In day-to-day life, this type of communication is an essential part of relationships, whether between friends or family members, as part of a set of coded messages through which we express ourselves. Marital partners often use non-verbal cues as a common tool to express dissatisfaction and frustration. Here are some of the common methods used by them:
Silence is a popular weapon. People try to show anger or discontent through it. If a spouse does not realise that something is wrong, the person's dissatisfaction grows. Many think that a husband or wife is obliged to understand their attitude.
If a person shuts up completely, the partner has to guess what is behind the silence. As time passes, the silence takes on another purpose, which is punishment. The person will deliberately not speak just because the partner was unable to understand the real reason behind his/her silence. This is an agonising situation for a spouse who may not be telepathic.

Indifference is another powerful form of non-verbal communication. A spouse becomes indifferent to matters of the house, the children, sexual intimacy and so on. The latter is commonly used by women when they are trying to say that something is wrong.
Men generally use pending work as an excuse to avoid their wives. They say they find it better to stay late at work rather than take work home. At least at work, they feel they can avoid their partner's negative attitude. Friends are also used in such circumstances. People surround themselves with friends all the time so they can avoid intimacy. In this case, we use a friend as a shield to fill the time that would probably be spent with the spouse.
Solitary hyper-activity or spending all one's spare time alone without including the mate are also ways of demonstrating that something is wrong. Exchange of affection also ceases in such situations.

Non-verbal cues that can strengthen a relationship
Destructive non-verbal communication can make an unresolved situation worse, undermining the relationship. Positive communication streng-thens the self-confidence and security of a couple.
A look of encouragement is often all that is needed for positive non-verbal communication. A husband who takes out time to reach home on time or go out with his wife is acknowledging that even within the intricate scheme of work, this coexistence is part of their priorities.
A simple touch also fits into the category of positive non-verbal communication. It is especially important when someone is in pain. A touch, whether fleeting or prolonged, conveys understanding even in silence, and empowers the partner.
Let us not forget, however, that verbalisation is equally important. By talking about something that bothered us and was not effectively resolved, we can strengthen understanding with our spouses and confirm what they interpreted from our non-verbal cues.
Silence does not always mean that a person is hiding behind it. However, false interpretation can give wings to a partner's imagination, making things even more difficult in a relationship. So make your attitude clear and express yourself honestly before things become unmanageable.

Play it safe

Parents and relatives are concerned about the safety of children, especially if they are babies. Mothers have constant doubts and fears over their children's safety. Thus, toys need to be purchased after careful consideration.
As a baby wants to bite and grab everything that comes his way, parents should take special care when they go shopping. It is especially important to monitor children's play. "During the first year, the baby takes everything, including toys, in his mouth and nibbles on them, which also serves to massage the gums," said a study by the Association for the Promotion of Child Safety (APSI) in Portugal.
If the child is irritable by nature, he needs toys that constantly stimulate him. Playpens and children's gyms allow babies and small children to explore their surroundings safely. They make life easier for mothers because they allow the execution of important day-to-day tasks without interruption. The mother can cook while the baby is playing, and watch him at the same time.
How to choose a playpen
As with other toys, choosing the right playpen is essential. It should be appropriate for the intended age group. Note the minimum safety requirements carefully. Always read the warnings and instructions and, if possible, remove the playground from the packaging to examine it thoroughly.
In Portugal, all manufacturers need to follow EU directives for the marketing of toys and baby products. This is known as the CE mark. It must be clearly visible on the toy or its packaging before it is introduced in the market. It should also include the manufacturer's name, business name, brand name and the address of the manufacturer, dealer or importer.
When to use a playpen
The use of a playpen is recommended from the time a child begins to explore the world around him. "Although the baby does not start moving all of a sudden, prepare the house for what can happen when he eventually does. Something untoward can happen when you least expect it," the study said.
Since the floor is not the safest place for playing, a children's gym is the best alternative. The playpen should be used in specific situations, such as when the supervising adult is bathing or cooking. In case of the latter, it is recommended that you place the playpen in the kitchen to see what the child is doing, and to keep track of his activities. A major advantage of a playpen is that it can be moved easily.
However, some safety regulations should be followed. If your baby is often alone with an adult, you should choose a sufficiently large playpen so the child can move freely. Use it only for small periods of time. Also check the method of assembly and the mechanism of opening/closing the pen.
Do not put toys that may harm the child, or others used for climbing or stacking, in the playpen. Last but not the least, do not put the playpen near objects that can be pulled or accessed by children, such as wires or lamps. The playground can be unsafe if parents are not attentive.

Love and betrayal

Several times during my professional life, I have encountered people who have cheated on their partner or been cheated on in relationships. Those who have been cheated on usually end up feeling lost and not knowing what to do or think. Betrayals of this kind cause severe pain and lead to serious self-doubt all over the world. I truly believe that a person in love will not betray. One who is truly in love does not feel the need to experience anything else. He/she is not open to new experiences and is in a particular relationship as a result of a mature and adult choice, and not because of moral values or fear of losing the person they fell in love with.
Being in love is much more than what a person wants or needs. It is a sharing that takes place naturally from both sides, with no demands and no stronger links. I believe the big problem of society lies here, because we don’t know about real love.
Modern society doesn’t permit us to develop and be mature when it comes to our emotions. As a result, we end up falling in love or being in a relationship in an immature and selfish way. If this is the case, it is very natural that people will cheat, after all, it's almost a condition of being human. We must understand the need for seeking and experiencing different things that sharpen our senses and stimulate our emotions.
In therapy, with the issue of betrayal usually comes the question: Should I forgive him or not? Will he/she do it again? Can I ever trust him/her? The reality is, what is that part of love that made you feel betrayed? How do you love and how do you feel about it?
The answer usually lies in the way that we love the other someone. Is our love mature? If you someone asks you why you love your partner, would your answer be something like, “He/she makes me feel good,” or, “He/she makes me feel stronger,” or prettier, safe, etc? Then it seems you are not experiencing real love, but what you like in this relationship is the way that person makes you feel about yourself and about life. So the lack of maturity and over self-centeredness are what stop us from reaching out with love.
Sometimes we are just in the wrong relationship, but if you end up there it is usually not by chance. The worst part is that you can recognise it, but you can’t end it.
If you can see yourself in any of these situations, you should consider therapy to find yourself and understand whether you love, if you are loved as per your expectations, and whether those expectations are real.
So, once again you might ask me, shall I forgive or not? Which of these options is conducive to mental health? That will only depend on how you love. Trust me, it is always possible to be truly happy!

Is your child Hyperactive?

It is common for any child to be active, sometimes even excessively, and this is normal. Likewise, it is common for children to lack interest and become disorderly, especially at school. But before we categorise this behaviour as 'hyperactivity,' we must understand that hyperactivity is characterised by uninterrupted activity. A hyperactive individual is active 24 hours a day, and even sleeps restlessly. When he is physically exhausted, his mind still needs to be active. Even though the body can not take it, the mind remains in action.
Hyperactivity is not a disease in itself, and is usually a symptom of disorders such as Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, some types of Attention deficit disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder and other learning or behavioural disorders.
There are several angles to consider: When a child is very active, always busy and never seems to get tired, you should observe how he sleeps. If he has restless sleep with or without nightmares, sleeps fitfully, falls out of bed or suffers from tics, seizures or other symptoms, he should be referred to a professional (paediatrician, therapist or psychiatrist) who is able to identify and treat the condition, or can refer the child to a specialist.
If the child's sleep is quiet and restful, we can say that he is normal. Then all you should do is leave him to spend all his energy during the day and to sleep and rest quietly at night. If the child is of school-going age, he should attend a school that has enough space for playing, and good toys.
If the child is not in school yet, it is up to parents to take him to a public park or playground. They can play instructive games with him, like play puppet theatre, for example. It is possible to make simple puppets with your child and then use them for this purpose. It will keep him busy for a long time and is an educational activity. In addition, many other activities can be organised with creativity and patience. Parents can explore several avenues to keep their children occupied and entertained.
In the case of indiscipline in small children, the quality of education should be reviewed as indiscipline and poor education often go together. If the child has a discipline problem in school, the number of unruly students in the class should be analysed.
If the entire class is well behaved and only a few students are disobedient, you should check who is responsible, since one child's bad manners may be causing a disturbance. When in doubt, a psychologist's intervention can be sought, because a psychologist can see if the children have any problems and/or forward them to other professionals for treatment.
If the whole class is undisciplined, it is likely that the teacher is boring, or some other factors are at play. A creative and interested teacher can surely find ways to make a class dynamic and interesting, and also discipline the children.
In case of exaggerated hyperactivity, seizures without complications, or if it is impossible to control the child, he should be referred to a psychologist or neuropsychologist who will be able to identify the disorder and treat it.

Consumerism among children

The current model of consumerism forces one to think about the audience targeted by advertisements, and their consequential effect on the psychological, social and physiological development of human beings, children in particular. The consumer ideology robs a child of a fundamental part of personal development. Children exposed to unbridled consumerism stop playing and start behaving like adults. They are often immature and their development may be retarded. According to eminent psychologists Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, the school is the fundamental institution for a child's development. It helps him develop communication skills and contributes to his intellectual, emotional and social development. However, there is also a sense of competition and social inequality in the school environment. Those that do not fit in are excluded.
A child exposed to the consumer model unconsciously believes that he needs a particular game, toy or another possession to fit into a group. Paradoxically, this same object is also used as a differentiator between people, thus causing the exclusion of those who have no coveted object to compete with.
According to the North American Dietetic Association's Borzekowiski Robinson, it only takes 30 seconds for a brand to influence a child. In Brazil for example, unlike other countries such as Sweden, England, Belgium, the USA, Germany, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, The Netherlands, Austria, Italy, Greece, Portugal and Norway, there is no regulation to limit advertising aimed at children.
There is no control, and advertisers are free to pursue profits unethically and without sparing a thought for children's well-being. The scenario in Oman is a complete reversal of roles. Children are routinely exposed to reality, and may resort to stealing to fulfil their wishes. They may experience a difficult adolescence and be prone to childhood obesity, early sexualisation, and premature use of tobacco and alcohol due to family stress. They may even become violent if their wishes are not fulfilled and if they feel they are socially unequal.
According to the socio-historical perspective of Vygotsky, man is a product of social interaction. It is therefore necessary to restructure the social scene in Oman, as well as and in the world, so that children do not fall victim to consumerism and other ills.

School inclusion and mental deficiency

The concept of integration is a fundamental principle of the consequences of standardisation. So, it is the key to the whole educational process. Taking the positive results achieved by the practice of educational inclusion in developed countries in the last two decades as its starting point, the Brazilian educational system has experienced a moment of transition in the care of pupils with special educational needs. Leaving a model of special education it embraced the idea of special classes and building a model for integration of special children in regular education classrooms as it is deduced from studies that the process of inclusion/integration of children with disabilities in regular education allows them to interact spontaneously in different situations, while helping them gain knowledge and develop.
This integration, however, should not be easily solved from a resolution of a nature legal or theoretical, since variables related to group processes and reactions of prejudice can influence it, either facilitating or hindering the integration of people with those called 'normal.'
The proposed school inclusion of children with special educational needs seeks to avoid the deleterious effects of social isolation these children face, create opportunities for interaction among children and reducing prejudice.
By the end of 80 years of the 20th century, the term integration began to wane, being replaced by the idea of inclusion, as the goal is to include, without distinction, all children, regardless of their abilities.
In addition, it favours the integration of special needs students while sharing their responsibility, while inclusion tries to advance, also requiring the society in general to do so. Inclusion in practice, however, realises that even those students who are included in the regular school system are still isolated from their classmates who are not disabled. There is physical inclusion, but not social and emotional.
The result is that students with severe disabilities have little opportunity to practice, refine and expand their repertoire of cognitive and social skills that will be useful in the course of their lives. These skills, if not learned in time, may cause social maladjustment, thus reaffirming the poor condition, while maintaining reduced likelihood of developing friendships. The rejection is closely linked to the perception that students will special needs have behaviors considered inadequate by their colleagues.
Students with special needs also have difficulty with their peers. According to Turner (1984), a failure to meet these students with their peers are both in acceptance and identification with the group. It's not just proximity that makes one think that he belongs to a group. He has to identify with the group because it is the basic process of group formation. Having a partner in development and acceptance in a group reduces prejudice and raises self-esteem.
Another aspect that may explain lack of relationship with colleagues is the time factor of exposure of special needs students to broader social situations; their low frequency ends up making them act stereotypically and reinforces the differences between them.
It was evident to all that there is a need for curriculum changes, an approximation of the parents to this 'new' school environment and then help children to adapt to this new reality in a healthy way where they have to learn and teach, in addition to a special student to student contact since the early school years to avoid a clash of reality, thoughts, and prejudiced attitude.

Alzheimer's and Families

Alzheimer's disease is most prevalent among those over the age of 65. With the diagnosis, families are faced with issues that undermine self-esteem, security and hope. In addition to medical facilities for diagnosis and treatment, the family may also require members of the community to help the patient in times of difficulty.
In the initial phase of the disease, the patient is able to venture out alone, but at some point, he will cease to recognise a well-known street and other landmarks. So it is necessary that the news of the diagnosis is shared with others outside the home, such as the doorman, the mailman or even the owner of the neighbourhood newsstand. Any of these people may be in a position to assist the patient to return home in case he gets lost.
Reaching out beyond the nuclear family also reduces feelings of loneliness and isolation. It may help if the patient and his family have some kind of support system during the process of developing the disease. Many families give some kind of identification documents to the patient in terms of personal data and diagnosis, so he can get help if needed.
As this form of dementia progresses, patients are more at risk when they leave home by themselves. The house will now require structural changes such as grills on windows, handrails on the stairs and other measures to help prevent potential accidents.
As far as family relationships go, I find that all the family members are affected by the presence of the disease. The patient needs a great deal of restructuring and care during the development of the disease. The caregiver often has to deal with fear, insecurity, rejection and interference from other family members, who are in one way or another involved with the affected person.
The marital relationship hangs in the balance. The patient's relationship with children and grandchildren becomes more vulnerable to arguments.
Impatience and intolerance in the face of the patient's inconsistent attitudes are some of the most common difficulties we see in the dynamics of these families. When a spouse is the affected party, the situation becomes more complex because caregivers have to deal with their own ageing and health problems, and their own problems may be heightened due to stress.
Unresolved issues may resurface between the couple in times of conflict and disappointment. Feelings of resentment, frustration and guilt that were not addressed in the past come to the fore. The patient now requires more attention and care, since these feelings need an outlet for expression.
Among the patient's children, the first impasse is in deciding whether to institutionalise the patient or keep him/her at home, and deciding who will be responsible for his/her care. Some people believe they will be punishing or even abandoning the patient if they choose to hospitalise him/her.
Choosing to put the patient in a clinic means that constant supervision and care are needed. In many cases, a particular caregiver's presence may make a bigger difference to the development of symptoms associated with Alzheimer's.
On the other hand, keeping the person at home demands that one takes care of one's children as well as the patient. With increasing complications as the disease develops, the caregiver is likely to be in constant conflict with other family members' welfare, and may not be able to bear the fatigue and suffering. Life expectancy and fear of developing the disease themselves are the most frequent concerns aired by family members.
The caregiver's anguish over the continued suffering and loss of a loved one's cognitive abilities can lead to intense feelings that must be shared, else they can lead to illness. Role reversal can also be noticed in the speech of caregivers.
At some point of time, the person with Alzheimer's will be totally dependent on the care of another person. The person who was once a provider and caregiver will need someone to take care of him/her.


Headache is one of the most common symptoms in medicine, is one of the most frequent complaints of consultations with clinicians, pediatricians and neurologists, physical therapists specializing in osteopathy, chiropractic and acupuncture specialists and dentists in Temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain and one of the most common reasons absence from work.

Headache is a universal symptom in humans. It is estimated that 90 to 100% of people will have some type of headache throughout life.

The headaches are divided into primary and secondary schools.

The most common primary headaches are migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache.

Other less common forms of primary headache include migraine continues, new daily persistent headache, stress headache, cough headache, cold stimulus headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicranianic.

Headache experts also generally treat facial pain, such as trigeminal neuralgia, atypical facial pain.

Secondary headaches are those caused by some other disease, such as brain tumors, head trauma, meningitis, stroke, hydrocephalus, and aneurysms.

Headaches can be divided into primary or idiopathic are those that have a cause or origin of its own.

The headaches that stem from other causes or diseases are called secondary headaches. These may have to do with problems with the nervous system, the level of the cranial sacral system (meninges, etc.). Or have to do with problems in some part of the body.

A secondary headache is such that you acquire when you have the flu, this being the cause of the headache.

The tension headaches are the most frequent and are felt as a heaviness, tightness, or mill, either at the front or in the neck or even on top of the head. The headache is often associated with fatigue, nervous system disorders, restlessness, depression, awkward postures, stress, too much noise, etc.. Sometimes there are too muscular tension level of the shoulders and neck, and can last hours or days.

A migraine headache is a strong or very strong that normally appears periodically and is normally pulsating or throbbing. Any movement of the head usually worsens as the physical or mental efforts. Often find only one side of the head and are usually accompanied by intolerance to light and noise and are often accompanied by vomiting.

The people suffering from this problem seek a dark, quiet place where they can rest or sleep. Migraines are usually a crisis that may last hours or days during which the person is completely to the ground and unable to function normally.

Sometimes there are so-called migraine with aura in which the person has impaired vision, as loss of vision on one side, blurring of images, sensations of bright lines, luminous dots or figures or even numbness or tingling in the face or the hand.

Unfortunately there is no medical examination to determine the causes of migraines.

The medical solutions are usually the same analgesic or anti-inflammatory.

However, the only medication used to control seizures and not to address the causes as they still do not know what they are.

However, and by observation of some people who suffer from these problems, to detect problems with the body and cranial sacral system that once corrected, substantially improve the crises and frequency of migraines and headaches.

A menstrual migraine is one that significantly decreases or disappears when correcting problems in body and cranial sacral system.

The other headaches, they disappear when it is correct because the causes giving rise to them.

But sometimes correct the body and cranial sacral system is not enough because sometimes there is also work those emotional factors that sometimes lie behind these problems.

This is often the reason for many failures in addressing the causes behind headaches and migraines. Is that there are few professionals who have training and sensitivity to detect and correct problems with the body and cranial sacral system and even less those who work together emotional factors that often exist behind these problems.

No diapers

Respecting the pace and progress of the child, parental help is essential to be able to overcome this additional step.
Respect the rhythms
Children are all different and their biological rhythms have no fixed scale to meet. Some children drop out of diapers sooner than others because it depends on the ability to control the sphincters.
When children reach two years it is natural to have, from time to time, a dry diaper in the morning - a sign that during the night did not pee and the bladder and bowel control is well underway. However, the early learning should begin during the day. Without forcing the child, now that the weather starts to be hotter, is the perfect time to start this new learning. For that, parents must have time and be patience.

A beginning full of expectations
The first thing to do is get a pot. Have your child help in the selection since it will have to please you. There are different shapes and colors and some with music - added bonus - when a child makes their needs.
After buying the potty for him to explain what it does. The best way is to tell you that parents will make their needs the toilet but, as he still has a little potty to your needs to begin training. Then, after the meals, the child should sit on potty to do their needs. Generally, it is normal that the child begins to make poop because children are usually in the diaper poop after meals. If the child does not do after about ten minutes to be seated, it is better to remove it and put it back within an hour.
Don’t force the child to stay longer than she needs, so she doesn’t stay tiered of the potty-weary.
It is natural that during the first experiments do pee in shorts, parents should not scold you, but explain to him that is now grown and should behave like a big boy. It is necessary to maintain the care of the child to sit on the potty every hour.

Warning signs
Children when they begin this new stage, often when they do not fully control the sphincters are not yet aware of its possibilities, and they are playing, even if they feel the need, are able to stand up to the last moment without going to the potty. However, if parents are aware of some signs may occur, for example, the child begins to tremble, her knees together as if pressed, shrinks ...
At such times should put it in her potty and explain that whenever you feel like it should sit.

Assistance procedures
If the child is walking normally without a diaper and has to leave before you leave home, sit on the potty and explain that you will not because it will put the diaper more beautiful without it, but you have to pee before starting so that you can handle until, for example grandmother's house.
At bedtime, before placing the child in bed, sit on the potty for a few minutes. If you wake up at night, and take advantage to put the potty - sometimes they pee means asleep.
Many children take some time to get used to ask to go to the potty quickly while others sit in it alone. Whatever the attitude of your child, not scold you when you have a leak. Throughout the day, ask him if he has no desire to go to the potty, but it is important that you put him periodically.
And don’t forget when the child is able to do his needs in the potty, the parents should always praise her.


We are in the high season when many people take vacations. It is natural then to imagine that those who are away from the office of the studies or are already "upside down", replacing the stolen energy from day to day by stress. But this is no absolute truth, some people feel more tired than when on vacation is working.
The difficulty in relaxation is a problem that has been worsening. On the one hand, during the holidays because the family relationships end tapering naturally and bringing up again, some unresolved conflicts. On the other hand, some use vacation time at work or college to take courses. That is, if not shuts down or allows the body to be refreshed.

There are also those who decide to embark on tour wearing. Who has invested in those package tours that promise to meet all of Europe in ten days or total fun in five days at Disney knows how to take these walks throughout the person's physical energy. Conclusion: In return, the tourist is a true human rag, in need of holidays.

As the holidays are a necessary period in human life, which should seek to enjoy it as best as possible, the ideal is to plan how the weather will be employed. If the person has only ten days of rest, but using it to actually rest your head, have fun, laugh and meet new people with totally different discourses of the routine.

It is important to understand that the holidays are not healing or salvation for people who are lonely or with relationship problems. But it is worth reserving a little time to "turn off" the tribulations that cause more stress. For those who can not relax and begin to feel that constant tension is affecting their health, the expert says that the healing process can happen in several ways:

Tips for those who are in the limit and can not relax:

Exercise - Release of endorphins, which is essential for physical and emotional balance;

Proper nutrition - Agitated People should avoid excessive consumption of food and beverage stimulants (spicy food, alcohol and coffee, for example);

The Development of spirituality - it is important to take care of his 'divine side', ie take readings of specific texts, moments of meditation and prayer;

Psychotherapy - Seek help from a psychologist. A serious professional can help find and fix this mental programming that prevents him from being at peace;

Keep your expectations in check - Do not try to do these holidays 'best of all time;

Do not consume too much alcohol - Drinks in excess can make you more tired and depressed;

Be ready for the unexpected - Remember that not everything can be under your control and relax;

Take these tips all year - whenever you feel 'on the edge' book a weekend just to unwind. These breaks are a holy medicine.

How to Choose Toys for Your Children

As everyone knows, the work that children have is to play, and the tools they use to play are the toys. The question that arises is what kind of toys do they have?

Which are the most and least appropriate? For whom should we decide every day children are "bombarded" in television ads for the most varied, and if they are available in great cartoon on top, most of the time are perfect copies of dolls which can wear , going to parties, characters are fantastic, each marry and have children, others are galactic invaders, etc.. There is therefore a huge competition in terms of entertainment and games.
Ideally, the toys they should buy are those that are appropriate to their ages. For example, although a microscope can be very stimulating and useful for a child of 11 years, it is very likely to remain on a shelf, untouched, if offered to a child of preschool age. Already on the other hand, if you buy a doll for his daughter, who has come up with a dress, for example, medieval and some historical significance, it is very likely that your imagination fly quickly over time. Today, many companies have already indicated in the boxes of toys ages themselves, which helps a lot in both the choice and the effect it will raise, putting aside the feelings of frustration and failure which could inflict.
When choosing toys for your child, be sure also to take into account the different areas of expertise that help to develop some toys.
For example, develop the fine motor skills is essential in a child who is learning to write his name. Toys that enhance and develop this competence are the best toy cars, building materials, yo-yos, magnets, video games, the handling of computer mice or write with computer keyboards.
Already with regard to coordinating and developing the capacity to develop muscle strength of a child is given a jump rope, roller skating, playing with rackets and began to walk on roller skates, or even begin cycling. The toys can help develop children's imagination. Children in their early school years, they love to play make-believe. For example love to play pretend that you are the post office, or pretend to be teachers and who are teaching their students the ABC.
Try giving a medical kit to your child and you will see that soon begins to simulate operations in their favorite dolls. Children of primary love playing with dolls and animals.
Therefore, at this age, do not deprive a boy playing with dolls, not discourage the girls playing with cars or toys that are traditionally for boys. If you prefer, in addition to dolls or stuffed animals, puppets are a good alternative, because they are great to give life and recreate voices and stories through the imagination. Do not forget that a child's imagination, the box that comes with the refrigerator or the microwave there new home can be quickly transformed into a space station or a puppet theater. The children basically love is to do things and play. Encourage your kids to work on creativity, always ensuring that they have on hand paper, pencils, markers, pens, paints, brushes, pencil-of-wax, etc..
Toys docking, the Lego, the etc.., Are great for architectural projects. The kits, jewelry, musical instruments, etc.. are great for developing their creativity. Another type of toys that help children develop their thinking capacity are precisely those board games. In the case of younger children is the best simple games, but in the older puzzles, books, science kits and are most suitable. Besides the children, virtually every board game has a very positive because they can always be made with the family.

The stutter in childhood

The stuttering, or stammering, is known technically as it is a language disorder that affects about 1 percent of the children.

It is characterized by a change in pace of speech, repetitions or blockages arising. This discontinuity causes a disruption in terms of rhythm and melody of speech. Although we do not know very well the motives, the fact is that boys are more affected than girls, and the ratio is 3 to 1.

Types of stuttering

- The clonic stuttering; is characterized by the repetition of a syllable in the sentence or while uttering it. There is a compulsive repetition of syllables that are stuck (for example, Por-Por-P0r-Portugal).

- A Focus stuttering is accompanied by a stop in speech; preventing the articulation of the word. It seems that it stumbles on the words. Suddenly, the missing word explodes and the phrase is completed - for example: you want to eat, eat, eating an ice cream? The stuttering may be accompanied by motor movements like eye blinking, tics and tremors.

- A lisp; is also disorders that fall into stuttering. The babbling has a thought, so to speak, takes place faster than you can verbalize what causes a clash of words. In Lisp, phrases are imperfect, inconsistent in how we build, but not in its articulation.

When does it starts?

The stuttering tends to occur between 3 and 6 years, but is more frequent at age 5. These ages are in themselves, two critical stages of child development, since it is around 3 years the child begins to use language as a privileged instrument of communication.

The formal thought is consolidated and the need to put into practice. The child tries to communicate verbally, but he makes a mistake with words. These difficulties cause anxiety, which increases when she realizes that her mother is also concerned for that reason.

Sometimes, in the stages of language evolution, there may be some episodes of stuttering, but are transient. This should not be a cause for concern for parents. The situation usually resolves itself and insistence on correcting it is likely to cause a fixation.

Some children even reach to express great fear to speak. Children also tend to repeat whole sentences, which should not be confused with stuttering.

At 6 years, it is time for entering elementary school and there are children who suffer terribly at this time, since they are flooded with feelings of abandonment. Although most families choose to place their children in kindergarten, it is certain that this moment could be a traumatic situation for children who were always with her mother and who suddenly find themselves deprived of it.

The fear of abandonment, the fantasy of having done something wrong and are being punished for it, increase their anxiety to the point that symptoms may arise from stuttering.

Solutions for stammering

There are several ways to approach this problem:

- Speech Therapy - for the language to become fluent.

- Relaxation- so that the subject learns to relax when faced with situations of great anxiety.

- Psychotherapy- alone or in addition to other intervention, psychotherapy appears to be effective. In adolescents, psychotherapy focused on problems specific to the crisis of adolescence can have a very happy this disorder. In children, psychotherapy is also an option to consider in order to free it of its anxieties and conflicts.


Stress can be defined as the sum of physical and mental responses caused by certain external stimuli (stressors) and allow the individual (human or animal) to overcome certain requirements of the environment and the physical and mental burden caused by this process.

The term stress has been borrowed from physics, which means the tension and wear they are exposed to the materials, and first used in today's direction in 1936 by physician Hans Selye in the journal Nature.

Stress can be caused by anxiety and depression due to the sudden change in lifestyle and exposure to a particular environment, which makes a person feel a certain kind of anguish. When the symptoms of stress persist for a long period of time, there may be feelings of avoidance (related to anxiety and depression). Our defenses mechanisms are not responding effectively, thus increasing the possibility of disease occur, especially cardiovascular.

Another important term in the study of stress is the term stressor; indicates that an event or happening that requires an individual to an adaptive reaction to the new situation; the reaction will give the name of coping (dealing). These coping responses may be functional or malfunctioning, or not as fulfilling its role in overcoming the situation in adapting to it.

Stressors, depending on the degree of their harmfulness and the time required for the adaptation process, divided into:

1. Critical biographical events (life events): events are locatable in time and space, which require a profound restructuring of the life situation provoke emotional-affective long term. Such events can be both positive and negative and have different degrees of normatively; the social demand. Examples are marriage, birth of a child, sudden death of a person, accident, etc..

2.Traumatic stressors; are a special kind of biographical events that critics have a very high intensity and that exceed the adaptive capacity of individual

3. Everyday stressors (daily hassles); are stressful events of the day to day, that interfere with the welfare of the undivided, and that experience as threatening, or frustrating losses. Examples are problems with weight or appearance, health problems of close relatives who require care, trouble with daily events (home care, rising prices, financial worries, etc.).

4. Chronic stressors (chronic strain); are situations or conditions spanning a relatively long time and brings with it experiences repeated and chronic stress (overwork, unemployment, etc.) and specific situations (beginning with and so defined) that bring lasting consequences (Example: Stress caused by problems stemming from divorce).

Examples of stressors:

• Contempt loving;

• Pain and Sorrow;

• Strong light;

• High levels of sound;

• Events: births, death, war, meetings, weddings, divorces, changes, chronic diseases, unemployment and amnesia;

• Liabilities: Unpaid Debts and lack of money;

• Work / study: exams, slow traffic and deadlines for small projects;

• Personal relationships: conflict and disappointment;

• Lifestyle: unhealthy food, smoking, alcoholism and insomnia;

• Exposure to constant stress in children (child abuse);

• Age.

In a way stress is necessary to keep us moving and functional; however if you feel that the high levels of stress in your life are interfering in your everyday performance or interfering with your well being you must immediately look for some help and see why your defense mechanisms are not being enough.

What is Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is an interface or application of psychology and neurology, studying the relationships between the brain and human behavior, yet practically dedicated to investigating how different lesions cause deficits in various areas of human cognition or as called by the first studies in this field studies the higher mental functions, leaving areas such as aggression, sexuality towards more integrative physiology and biology (neurobiology, neurophysiology, psychophysiology, psychobiology) or better in neuroscience. Among the main contributions of this branch of knowledge are the results of scientific research to design interventions in cases of brain injury where there is impairment of cognition and some aspects of behavior.

What is the role of the neuropsychologist?

The neuropsychologist is a professional active in various institutions, developing activities such as diagnosis, rehabilitation, family orientation and multidisciplinary teamwork. The main places where the neuropsychologist is required include: academic institutions (research, teaching), hospital (pre-and post-surgical), courts (and evaluation skills), clinical (assessment, rehabilitation and research), private clinics and homecare (rehabilitation).

There are three fields of actions that are fundamental to the profession neuropsychologist

1. Diagnosis - Using instruments (tests, batteries, scales) for standardized assessment of cognitive functions, the neuropsychologist will investigate the performance of skills such as attention, perception, language, reasoning, abstraction, memory, learning, academic skills and motor functions. This diagnosis is intended to be able to collect clinical data to help understand the extent of losses and explore the points that each intact condition causes the central nervous system of each patient. From this assessment Neuropsychological is possible to establish types of intervention, rehabilitation and specific to particular individuals and / or groups of patients with dysfunctional or otherwise acquire, genetic or not, primarily or secondarily to other Neurological disorders (Psychiatric).

2. Treatment (Rehabilitation) - With the diagnosis in hand the Neuropsychologist can make the necessary interventions with patients so they can improve, compensate or adapt to circumvent the difficulties. These interventions can be in the context of cognitive functioning: work directly with cognitive functions (memory, language, attention, etc) or a much more ecological, the living environment of the patient along with their families, to act as co-participants in the process of rehabilitation, along with multidisciplinary teams and academic institutions and professionals, promoting cooperation in the insertion or reinsertion of such individuals in the community when possible, or even in individual and family adaptation when changes in patient's capabilities are more permanent or long term.

3. Search - Research in Neuropsychology involves the study of such diverse areas as the study of cognitions, emotions, personality and behavior from the standpoint of the relationship between these aspects and brain functioning. Currently the use of specific drugs to stimulate or inhibit certain functions, has been used frequently to observe the behavior and cognitive functioning of individuals in given situations. Another technique that has greatly contributed in the Neuroscience and Neuropsychology with great specificity in neuroimaging is the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional tomography positron emission tomography (PET-CT) that allow you us to map certain areas related to specific activities. Therefore, it is clear that neuropsychology is a field of work and emerging research, both for psychology and for the Neurosciences, advancing and contributing uniquely to the understanding of how we think and act in the world.


I would like to inform that several of my articles have been copied in to another blog in Muscat, what is an act of plagiarism!!!!!!!!!!!!!


You can not say that there is only one reason leading to drug use but several factors that can influence the consumption or no consumption. These factors can be individual, social, familial, environmental and related to each substance.
There are different forms of consumption with different meanings and reasons that lead people to try a drug are different from the reasons that lead them to become dependent.

Causes of Drug Abuse, why do people use it?
In the beginning, it’s a phase of experimentation, there are a number of factors that can lead to the consumption of which stands out: the curiosity, the desire to belong to a group, the desire for fun, the fear of exclusion from the group, the availability of the drug, the illusion of solving problems, a positive representation of substances, among others. This experimental use may not lead to a sporadic or habitual consumption but can also become an addiction

The recreational use is associated with fun and leisure. One of its main features is the search for immediate pleasure in the context of dance or fun.
The last stage of consumption when it is installed dependency. Consumption becomes the main purpose and motivation in life, everything revolves around him.

Anyway, in each case there are always a number of factors that should be examined by a specialist in order to plan an appropriate treatment regimen.

How to tell if my child is addicted?
The signals can be as varied as, for example, changes the rhythm of life (sleep, eating), severe mood swings, lying, big secret about his life, their activities, their relationships with friends, spending unexplained money which may be linked to drug use but may also originate from other types of situations that age, and must be well balanced. There is however a set of signs of drug use as the appearance of needles and syringes, needle marks from bites, burnt spoons or knives, silverware of packs or foil burned.

The best way to notice it is being attentive to their behavior changes and maintaining a sufficiently close and affectionate with your child that allows him to talk about it if necessary.

How do I stop my son to became a drogue addict?
There are no recipes, but it is important to maintain a good relationship with him that allows discussion and discussion of all matters that arise throughout the life of his son, including drug use. Give him support when he needs to pay attention to their studies or work, your friends - in short, helping it grow and grow with him.

Cannabis is the first step for the consumption of harder drugs?
Not necessarily. In fact, there are people who use cannabis and do not feel the need to consume other substances. Other people use cannabis and / or alcohol and will gradually extend the use of other substances that cause more dependence - poly. It is a fact that there are substances with the addictive power than others. However, it is essential to realize the importance of consumption in the life of the person concerned. There may be regular consumption of hashish that leads to an addiction and there may be occasional consumption of more potent drugs without associated dependency, although in this case the risk of dependence is quite large. For this reason you should pay attention not only to the substance consumed, but also the use that individuals make of it and what it represents in your life.

What if I discover that my son is addicted?
Young people consume different products and not all have the same meaning consumption. It is important to know that consuming the substance, as it does and how long to determine if it is for trial or continued consumption.

Either way it's always important to talk to him, confront him with the facts and seek support from the family doctor or other health specialists. If the intakes are regular or substances such as heroin or cocaine, a health care professional will know to help him, and his son, to find a way to cope.

• Any drug are potentially toxic, the degree of intoxication depends on the intensity of use, being directly proportional.

• Even drug accepted, tolerated or even encouraged by society can get to abuse and addiction.

The person who uses drugs ends up being dependent for a long time, until he/she resolve to treat him/ her self or decide to quit drugs.

Preventing School Failure

It is now common that teachers, doctors and parents send a child to a psychologist for him to consider, especially if there are learning difficulties, or if somehow the attitudes and behaviors of the child deviate slightly from normality.
There are, in fact, psychological tests to assess, both factors of personality or intelligence, and that gives us a precise indication of what's going on at that moment that the child is having this or that kind of behavior as well as learning difficulties.
The notion of IQ is debatable, since there are several types of intelligence, as so-called emotional intelligence, which greatly influence the performances of the subjects. A person can be very intelligent, both formal and can not be successful at the professional level due to a failure at the level of emotional intelligence.
In addition, often requires that if an assessment of development. Evidence of development, that allows us to assess whether a child is developing in a manner appropriate to their age. Are complex tests that can be applied from the first months of life.
When there is a need to outwit emotional problems, the psychologist makes use of other tests. The night fears, jealousy of younger siblings, the family feeling of exclusion, are among the reasons that trigger some emotional imbalance in childhood.
Today it is very common that parents want their children to join earlier in the first year and they learn quickly to read. This rush can give poor results because if the child has not reached a certain degree of intellectual maturity, it is difficult to assimilate certain concepts.
For this reason, is important to conduct a psychological evaluation. If the maturity of the child is worse than expected, given his age, is beneficial for the child to stay another year in preschool, because only this way can prevent the emergence of problems such as dyslexia, among others.
When asked for a psychological examination are evaluated several factors simultaneously. You see, for example, that a child not at school may be related to emotional and not cognitive.
All this has to be exploited, either by testing or consultation. Finally, we presented a psychological evaluation and report are outlined strategies to overcome the problems.
It is important to stress that the earlier problems are detected, the faster you can outline plans to solve them and only through a specialized support is that this becomes possible.
Therefore, if your child had difficulties in the school year now, consider the possibility that the lead psychologist at the beginning of this school year, for only thus will help prevent failure.

Good family connections - It's easier than it looks

The best solution is to work less and spend more time with your kids and your family! Sometimes having more time involves making choices, get up early, giving up lunch hours, be faster at the tasks ... When this is possible, it's great because the kids really need to spend time with their parents.

The past tense should be quality. It is essential that every day (or almost all!) Play / play / talk - as the ages and tastes of children - at least for 20 minutes. During this time, there can be no television on, or ringing phones, or to make dinner, etc.. Not being "next to" is "being with", which is quite different.

The concerns of the work should stay at work. It is very important not to "discharge" in the children (the same applies to your partner). It is essential to scold when they deserve to hear a scorned and not because you are impatient because your day went wrong at work. It is important to correct, but because the attitude is not right and not because it took transit and arrive home too tired to smile.

Take a deep breath, count to 10 and start again! Optimize your family time, make the most to relax together, enjoy each others company, enjoy playing sports with the family, take a walk outdoors, do interesting cultural programs. Basically, try to do things that bring smiles to all and good mood, especially after weekend so they can go "charging battery" for the work week.

The family connections help the child understand the rules and understand what is good and what is bad.

A mistake is choosing the easy way like: give food instead of encouraging your child to eat alone, arrange the children’s room because it is much faster than expect that they clean up.

It is important to correct, because the attitude is not right and not because you arrive home and you are too tired to smile.

Children benefit greatly from the patience and wisdom of grandparents and vibrate with the willingness of most uncles.

If parents want their children to stay in care, should give them guidelines and clarify their routines; bedtime, which may or may not do, what to eat, etc.. it is up to the parents to decide and pass that information to whoever is taking care of the children. Parents say that and care keepers should follow the suggestions of the parents without losing their individuality and their spontaneity. Life gives us leeway, with common sense children and adults get along well.

Uncles and grandparents are very important for children and these are even more important for the uncles and grandparents! "Every family and child are unique. Typically, the grandchildren do wonders to the grandparents, taking a few years from there back and by making time "fly." Uncles; children teach many things, help us unwind and simplify life.

Try to do things that bring smiles to all and good mood, especially after weekend so they can go for charging batteries for the work week.

For children grow up full of virtues and a strong character, parents should teach them values such as generosity, friendship, patience, self control, self-esteem, justice, obedience, humility, honesty, respect, among others.

Each family member has their role and the secret is that each one will hold him without wanting to reverse roles. "It's important that parents are not disallowed in front of children, but it's also good to make room for other family members to exercise its role more relaxed with the children. The ideal is that they live with a family environment where seeing who has the last word are the parents and they are responsible for the basic rules and routines for the main decisions of family dynamics.

Asperger Syndrome

Asperger syndrome or disorder Asperger's syndrome is an autism spectrum, differing from the classical autism not include any delay or retardation in cognitive development or global language of the individual.

AS is more common in males, as adults, many can live in a common life, and some individuals with Asperger syndrome have become university professors (as Vernon Smith, "Nobel Prize" in Economics in 2002).

Some symptoms of this syndrome are difficulty in social interaction, lack of empathy, very literal interpretation of language, difficulty with change, perseveration in stereotyped behaviours. However, this can be reconciled with high or normal cognitive development.

Some scholars contend that great figures in history had strong traits of Asperger syndrome as physicists Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, the composer Mozart, the philosopher Socrates.

Asperger syndrome, also known as high-function autism (HFA), which defines the syndrome as a condition with the following characteristics:

• Severe and persistent impairment in social interaction;

• The development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities;

• Clinically significant impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning;

• No significant delay in language development;

• There is, no clinically significant delays in cognitive development or skills development, self-help age-appropriate, adaptive behaviour (in an area other than social interaction) and curiosity about the environment in childhood.

The diagnosis of AS is complicated because even through the use of various assessment tools in the absence of a clinical examination to detect it.

Asperger syndrome in children may develop as a level of intense and obsessive focus on matters of interest, many of which are the same as normal children. The difference in children with AS is the unusual intensity of this interest.

Sometimes the interests are for life, in other cases, is changing the unpredictable intervals. In any case, are usually one or two interests at a time. In pursuing these interests, people with SA often manifests extremely sophisticated argument, an almost obsessive focus and an amazingly good memory for facts.

People with Asperger Syndrome may have little patience for things outside of those fields of particular interest. At school, may be deemed unfit or gifted highly intelligent, clearly able to overcome your colleagues in your field of interest, and yet constantly motivated to do homework.

Others may be highly motivated to overcome their schoolmates. The combination of social problems and intense special interests can lead to unusual behaviour such as approaching a stranger and start a long monologue on a topic of special interest instead of performing before a socially accepted. However, in many cases adults can overcome such impatience and lack of motivation and develop more tolerance to new activities and meet people.

In 2010, the American Psychiatric Association released a proposal for DSM-V, where Asperger syndrome disappears as a distinct diagnosis, starting to be included in autism.

Characteristics of SA:

• Specific interests or concerns and restricted to one theme at the expense of other activities;

• Repetitive behaviours or rituals;

• Peculiarities in speech and language;

• Standards of logical / technical extensive;

• Socially and emotionally inappropriate behaviour and interpersonal interaction problems;

• Problems with communication;

• Ability to design to compensate for the difficulty in expressing themselves verbally;

• Disorders engines, clumsy and uncoordinated.

A person with AS may have trouble understanding the emotions of others: the messages passed through facial expressions, looks and gestures have a low impact, but not zero. They may also have difficulty in showing empathy.

Thus, Aspergers may seem selfish, self-centred or insensitive. In most cases, these perceptions are unfair because the syndrome patients are neurologically unable to understand the emotional states of people around them. They usually are shocked, angered and hurt when they say their actions are offensive or inappropriate. Clearly, people with AS have emotions. But the precise nature of the emotional ties that may have can seem quaint or even be a cause of concern for anyone who does not share the same perspective.
Not being able to show affection - at least in the conventional way - does not necessarily mean they do not feel affection. Understanding this can help those around you to feel less rejected and be more understanding.