Motivation is a set of internal forces that mobilise an individual to achieve a particular purpose in response to a state of necessity, lack or imbalance. The word 'motivation' comes from the Latin movere, meaning to move.

Motivation is what is likely to move an individual to perform an act in order to achieve something (the goal). Motivation can be broadly classified into two major types.
Physiological motivation (primary, organic, biological): This includes activities linked to the survival of an organism and is not the result of a learning process.
Homeostasis is a mechanism used by living organisms to regulate their bodies' internal balance. Such mechanisms cause certain body impulses that are closely connected with a particular internal state of the organism like respiration, hunger, thirst, avoiding cold and heat, and sleep.
Social motivation (secondary, cultural): This is what is essentially a result of learning, ie acquired in the process of socialisation. Examples: Need for coexistence (affiliation), success, recognition and social security. This group can be subdivided into individual centric motivation and that focused on society.
a) Individual-centric (self-assertion) motivation stems from the desire to be accepted, the need for security, to belong to a group, to achieve a high social status etc.
b) Motivation focused on society (independent of our private interests) includes respect for others, solidarity, friendship, love etc.
Some question this division of motives, stating that they all have a common background - the pursuit of pleasure, which is the only real reason for all human actions.
Motivational cycle
1. Need is a reason behind an action. It is caused by a state of imbalance due to a lack or deprivation (eg lack of food in the body).
2. Push or drive: It is the act carried out because of need or reason. It is the internal energy that pushes an individual to act in a given direction.
3. Encouragement: Is the goal to which orients the action.
4. Satiety: Is the satisfaction of having achieved the desired objective. This sequential behaviour repeats itself.
When an individual is motivated to achieve a given objective, but cannot, due to an obstacle, he lives in a state of frustration. This feeling depends on many factors, like the subject's personality, age, nature of motivation, type of obstacle etc.
Reactions to frustration: Each kind of frustration has a particular reaction. The reactions too depend on many factors.
Behaviour resulting from frustration
Aggression: Aggression is direct when it is shown against the source that caused the frustration. Or, it can shift to other people or objects. For example, for a child, it could be directed on the parent who prevents him from playing (direct aggression). Or, the child destroys the toys with which the parent prevented play (displaced aggression).
Throughout the process of socialisation, an individual learns to deal with frustrations through inhibition, withdrawal or disguising manifestations of aggressiveness. In extreme situations, the individual may manifest aggressiveness on himself (self-harm).
Apathy (indifference or inactivity): Faced with ongoing frustrations, an individual can fall into an apathetic reaction (indifference towards the source of frustration).
Here, the motivating impulse behaviour is reduced or eliminated

Educating through play

Small children learn a lot better when you associate the act of learning with the pleasures of a game. If you only communicate the idea, they won’t learn as easily as through a game. The concept will be immediately absorbed. This issue is fundamental because we can do a lot of work with children, using games as a tool.
Teaching children to build toys using scrap is extremely easy. A stopper and a bottle can become a spacecraft. The child represents it with his or her imagination. Free yourself from the constraints of ready toys.
Presenting various materials can stimulate the child’s imagination. It is always preferable to build games or toys that are very simple, a rag doll for example. Children quickly lose interest in sophisticated toys as their use depletes quickly.
Colours and sounds
The more the intimacy with the child, the more parents are able to know what pleases him. Colour, texture, versatility and simplicity are factors to be taken into account in the choice of a toy.
In addition, we have to always bear in mind the age of the child. It he is too small, he will tend to put everything in his mouth. Toys with sharp edges and small parts can be dangerous.
In the first three months, toys that make sound are most enjoyed. Moving toys, colourful mobiles, music boxes, plush dolls etc are preferred.
Make-believe games
Symbolic games play an important part when the child is around two years of age. Now is the time to let him play freely. This way, the child can accomplish his desires and resolve conflicts by means of toys.
Simple and colourful toys like docking games, Lego blocks, dolls, pieces of cloth, encourage imagination and are most appreciated and enjoyed. When the child reaches around five years, ‘make-believe’ games come into play; the oscillation between inner and outer worlds allow the child to assume different roles and personalities.