School inclusion and mental deficiency

The concept of integration is a fundamental principle of the consequences of standardisation. So, it is the key to the whole educational process. Taking the positive results achieved by the practice of educational inclusion in developed countries in the last two decades as its starting point, the Brazilian educational system has experienced a moment of transition in the care of pupils with special educational needs. Leaving a model of special education it embraced the idea of special classes and building a model for integration of special children in regular education classrooms as it is deduced from studies that the process of inclusion/integration of children with disabilities in regular education allows them to interact spontaneously in different situations, while helping them gain knowledge and develop.
This integration, however, should not be easily solved from a resolution of a nature legal or theoretical, since variables related to group processes and reactions of prejudice can influence it, either facilitating or hindering the integration of people with those called 'normal.'
The proposed school inclusion of children with special educational needs seeks to avoid the deleterious effects of social isolation these children face, create opportunities for interaction among children and reducing prejudice.
By the end of 80 years of the 20th century, the term integration began to wane, being replaced by the idea of inclusion, as the goal is to include, without distinction, all children, regardless of their abilities.
In addition, it favours the integration of special needs students while sharing their responsibility, while inclusion tries to advance, also requiring the society in general to do so. Inclusion in practice, however, realises that even those students who are included in the regular school system are still isolated from their classmates who are not disabled. There is physical inclusion, but not social and emotional.
The result is that students with severe disabilities have little opportunity to practice, refine and expand their repertoire of cognitive and social skills that will be useful in the course of their lives. These skills, if not learned in time, may cause social maladjustment, thus reaffirming the poor condition, while maintaining reduced likelihood of developing friendships. The rejection is closely linked to the perception that students will special needs have behaviors considered inadequate by their colleagues.
Students with special needs also have difficulty with their peers. According to Turner (1984), a failure to meet these students with their peers are both in acceptance and identification with the group. It's not just proximity that makes one think that he belongs to a group. He has to identify with the group because it is the basic process of group formation. Having a partner in development and acceptance in a group reduces prejudice and raises self-esteem.
Another aspect that may explain lack of relationship with colleagues is the time factor of exposure of special needs students to broader social situations; their low frequency ends up making them act stereotypically and reinforces the differences between them.
It was evident to all that there is a need for curriculum changes, an approximation of the parents to this 'new' school environment and then help children to adapt to this new reality in a healthy way where they have to learn and teach, in addition to a special student to student contact since the early school years to avoid a clash of reality, thoughts, and prejudiced attitude.

Alzheimer's and Families

Alzheimer's disease is most prevalent among those over the age of 65. With the diagnosis, families are faced with issues that undermine self-esteem, security and hope. In addition to medical facilities for diagnosis and treatment, the family may also require members of the community to help the patient in times of difficulty.
In the initial phase of the disease, the patient is able to venture out alone, but at some point, he will cease to recognise a well-known street and other landmarks. So it is necessary that the news of the diagnosis is shared with others outside the home, such as the doorman, the mailman or even the owner of the neighbourhood newsstand. Any of these people may be in a position to assist the patient to return home in case he gets lost.
Reaching out beyond the nuclear family also reduces feelings of loneliness and isolation. It may help if the patient and his family have some kind of support system during the process of developing the disease. Many families give some kind of identification documents to the patient in terms of personal data and diagnosis, so he can get help if needed.
As this form of dementia progresses, patients are more at risk when they leave home by themselves. The house will now require structural changes such as grills on windows, handrails on the stairs and other measures to help prevent potential accidents.
As far as family relationships go, I find that all the family members are affected by the presence of the disease. The patient needs a great deal of restructuring and care during the development of the disease. The caregiver often has to deal with fear, insecurity, rejection and interference from other family members, who are in one way or another involved with the affected person.
The marital relationship hangs in the balance. The patient's relationship with children and grandchildren becomes more vulnerable to arguments.
Impatience and intolerance in the face of the patient's inconsistent attitudes are some of the most common difficulties we see in the dynamics of these families. When a spouse is the affected party, the situation becomes more complex because caregivers have to deal with their own ageing and health problems, and their own problems may be heightened due to stress.
Unresolved issues may resurface between the couple in times of conflict and disappointment. Feelings of resentment, frustration and guilt that were not addressed in the past come to the fore. The patient now requires more attention and care, since these feelings need an outlet for expression.
Among the patient's children, the first impasse is in deciding whether to institutionalise the patient or keep him/her at home, and deciding who will be responsible for his/her care. Some people believe they will be punishing or even abandoning the patient if they choose to hospitalise him/her.
Choosing to put the patient in a clinic means that constant supervision and care are needed. In many cases, a particular caregiver's presence may make a bigger difference to the development of symptoms associated with Alzheimer's.
On the other hand, keeping the person at home demands that one takes care of one's children as well as the patient. With increasing complications as the disease develops, the caregiver is likely to be in constant conflict with other family members' welfare, and may not be able to bear the fatigue and suffering. Life expectancy and fear of developing the disease themselves are the most frequent concerns aired by family members.
The caregiver's anguish over the continued suffering and loss of a loved one's cognitive abilities can lead to intense feelings that must be shared, else they can lead to illness. Role reversal can also be noticed in the speech of caregivers.
At some point of time, the person with Alzheimer's will be totally dependent on the care of another person. The person who was once a provider and caregiver will need someone to take care of him/her.