Stress can be defined as the sum of physical and mental responses caused by certain external stimuli (stressors) and allow the individual (human or animal) to overcome certain requirements of the environment and the physical and mental burden caused by this process.

The term stress has been borrowed from physics, which means the tension and wear they are exposed to the materials, and first used in today's direction in 1936 by physician Hans Selye in the journal Nature.

Stress can be caused by anxiety and depression due to the sudden change in lifestyle and exposure to a particular environment, which makes a person feel a certain kind of anguish. When the symptoms of stress persist for a long period of time, there may be feelings of avoidance (related to anxiety and depression). Our defenses mechanisms are not responding effectively, thus increasing the possibility of disease occur, especially cardiovascular.

Another important term in the study of stress is the term stressor; indicates that an event or happening that requires an individual to an adaptive reaction to the new situation; the reaction will give the name of coping (dealing). These coping responses may be functional or malfunctioning, or not as fulfilling its role in overcoming the situation in adapting to it.

Stressors, depending on the degree of their harmfulness and the time required for the adaptation process, divided into:

1. Critical biographical events (life events): events are locatable in time and space, which require a profound restructuring of the life situation provoke emotional-affective long term. Such events can be both positive and negative and have different degrees of normatively; the social demand. Examples are marriage, birth of a child, sudden death of a person, accident, etc..

2.Traumatic stressors; are a special kind of biographical events that critics have a very high intensity and that exceed the adaptive capacity of individual

3. Everyday stressors (daily hassles); are stressful events of the day to day, that interfere with the welfare of the undivided, and that experience as threatening, or frustrating losses. Examples are problems with weight or appearance, health problems of close relatives who require care, trouble with daily events (home care, rising prices, financial worries, etc.).

4. Chronic stressors (chronic strain); are situations or conditions spanning a relatively long time and brings with it experiences repeated and chronic stress (overwork, unemployment, etc.) and specific situations (beginning with and so defined) that bring lasting consequences (Example: Stress caused by problems stemming from divorce).

Examples of stressors:

• Contempt loving;

• Pain and Sorrow;

• Strong light;

• High levels of sound;

• Events: births, death, war, meetings, weddings, divorces, changes, chronic diseases, unemployment and amnesia;

• Liabilities: Unpaid Debts and lack of money;

• Work / study: exams, slow traffic and deadlines for small projects;

• Personal relationships: conflict and disappointment;

• Lifestyle: unhealthy food, smoking, alcoholism and insomnia;

• Exposure to constant stress in children (child abuse);

• Age.

In a way stress is necessary to keep us moving and functional; however if you feel that the high levels of stress in your life are interfering in your everyday performance or interfering with your well being you must immediately look for some help and see why your defense mechanisms are not being enough.

What is Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is an interface or application of psychology and neurology, studying the relationships between the brain and human behavior, yet practically dedicated to investigating how different lesions cause deficits in various areas of human cognition or as called by the first studies in this field studies the higher mental functions, leaving areas such as aggression, sexuality towards more integrative physiology and biology (neurobiology, neurophysiology, psychophysiology, psychobiology) or better in neuroscience. Among the main contributions of this branch of knowledge are the results of scientific research to design interventions in cases of brain injury where there is impairment of cognition and some aspects of behavior.

What is the role of the neuropsychologist?

The neuropsychologist is a professional active in various institutions, developing activities such as diagnosis, rehabilitation, family orientation and multidisciplinary teamwork. The main places where the neuropsychologist is required include: academic institutions (research, teaching), hospital (pre-and post-surgical), courts (and evaluation skills), clinical (assessment, rehabilitation and research), private clinics and homecare (rehabilitation).

There are three fields of actions that are fundamental to the profession neuropsychologist

1. Diagnosis - Using instruments (tests, batteries, scales) for standardized assessment of cognitive functions, the neuropsychologist will investigate the performance of skills such as attention, perception, language, reasoning, abstraction, memory, learning, academic skills and motor functions. This diagnosis is intended to be able to collect clinical data to help understand the extent of losses and explore the points that each intact condition causes the central nervous system of each patient. From this assessment Neuropsychological is possible to establish types of intervention, rehabilitation and specific to particular individuals and / or groups of patients with dysfunctional or otherwise acquire, genetic or not, primarily or secondarily to other Neurological disorders (Psychiatric).

2. Treatment (Rehabilitation) - With the diagnosis in hand the Neuropsychologist can make the necessary interventions with patients so they can improve, compensate or adapt to circumvent the difficulties. These interventions can be in the context of cognitive functioning: work directly with cognitive functions (memory, language, attention, etc) or a much more ecological, the living environment of the patient along with their families, to act as co-participants in the process of rehabilitation, along with multidisciplinary teams and academic institutions and professionals, promoting cooperation in the insertion or reinsertion of such individuals in the community when possible, or even in individual and family adaptation when changes in patient's capabilities are more permanent or long term.

3. Search - Research in Neuropsychology involves the study of such diverse areas as the study of cognitions, emotions, personality and behavior from the standpoint of the relationship between these aspects and brain functioning. Currently the use of specific drugs to stimulate or inhibit certain functions, has been used frequently to observe the behavior and cognitive functioning of individuals in given situations. Another technique that has greatly contributed in the Neuroscience and Neuropsychology with great specificity in neuroimaging is the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional tomography positron emission tomography (PET-CT) that allow you us to map certain areas related to specific activities. Therefore, it is clear that neuropsychology is a field of work and emerging research, both for psychology and for the Neurosciences, advancing and contributing uniquely to the understanding of how we think and act in the world.


I would like to inform that several of my articles have been copied in to another blog in Muscat, what is an act of plagiarism!!!!!!!!!!!!!