Is a set of internal forces that mobilize the individual to achieve a given target in response to a state of necessity, need or imbalance.
The word motivation comes from the Latin movere, which means "move". The motivation is what is likely to move the individual to get him to act, to achieve something (the objective), and will produce a goal-oriented behavior.
According to Maslow; (founder of humanistic psychology) the process as the individual goes thru basic needs such as feeding, the higher needs such as cognitive or aesthetic. Maslow provides a uniform hierarchy of needs on the idea that if they do not satisfy a basic need, it becomes impossible to satisfy other order superior. If we are hungry (physiological need), for example, we are unable to focus on aesthetic activities. This idea applies to all activities of life, affirming that all men aspire to self-realization of their full potential.
Hierarchy of motivations (ascending order) Maslow Pyramid:
1. Physiological needs (water, sunlight, food, oxygen, sex, shelter);
2. Necessity of security (free from fear and threats, not dependent on anyone, of autonomy, of not being abandoned, protection of confidentiality);
3. Necessity of affection or belonging (affection, companionship, interpersonal relationships, comfort, communication, give and receive love);
4. Necessity of prestige and social esteem (respect for personal dignity, deserved praise, self-esteem, individuality, sexual identity, sexual identity, recognition);
5. Needs for self-realization and creativity (self-expression, usefulness, creativity, production, entertainment);
6. Cognitive and curiosity, to see the world (namely, intelligence, study, understanding, encouragement, personal asset);
7. Esthetic (creating opportunities, personal autonomy, order, beauty, intimacy, truth, spiritual goals).
There is a classification of motives, but several. The motivations can be classified into two major groups:
1. Physiological (primary, organic): those linked to the survival of the organism and not a result of learning. They trigger certain impulses in the body to restore its balance. These motivations are closely related with certain internal state of the organism. Ex: breathing, hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, etc.. Homeostasis means that the mechanism regulating the body's internal balance.
2. Social motives (secondary culture) which depends essentially on learning; they were acquired in the socialization process. Ex: The need for coexistence, recognition of social success, etc.. This group can be subdivided:
a) Centered on the individual (self-affirmation): desire for security, to be accepted, to belong to a group, to achieve high social status, to enrich, etc..
b) Centered in society (independent of our interests): respect for others, solidarity, friendship, love, etc..
Some question this division of the motivations, saying that they all have a common background: the pursuit of pleasure, the only true source of all human actions.
So, there is a Motivational cycle:
1. Necessity; It is the reason for the action. It is caused by a state of imbalance due to a lack or deprivation (ex. Lack of food in the body);
2. Impulse or drive; It is the activities undertaken by necessity or reason; the internal energy that propels the individual to act in a given direction. (Ex: force that moves the individual to obtain food);
3. Answer; it is the activity triggered to achieve something (Ex: Looking for food);
4. Incentive; it is the purpose for which it guides the action. (Ex: eating the food);
5. Satiety; It is the satisfaction resulting from having attained the desired goal (after having eaten the food, hunger disappears).
This sequential behavior back to again and again whenever you need to repeat that causes them.