A stroke is, a disease associated with changes in the vessels of the brain, and these changes can be of two types: ischemic and hemorrhagic;
The first involves a reduction in cerebral blood flow. This flow is important because it allows the brain to carry oxygen and nutrients essential to the functioning of cells that constitute it. If this flow is reduced or stopped, brain cells fail to receive these essential elements and eventually die.
The hemorrhagic disorders account for changes in the permeability of blood vessels in the brain or even break them. Thus, there is output of blood vessels triggering the formation of a cluster of blood compressing the brain structures, altering their functioning.
When this happens the functions performed by the group of cells that die are lost and the individual has what is called neurological signs; manifestations of the lack of these same functions.
Why does stroke happen?
Well, it depends on the type of stroke that we are talking about; In the case of ischemic stroke are two main causes: thrombosis and embolism. A stroke happens when an artery for any reason will become increasingly narrow and eventually occlude (the most common reason is atherosclerosis). Embolism occurs when something that circulates in the bloodstream reaches an artery with smaller size and occludes (more often it is blood clots that form in arteries outside the brain or heart). There are other causes but are less common.
In the case of hemorrhagic stroke the two major causes are head trauma and the existence of change of the arteries, including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, but more often changes caused by the existence of hypertension.
How can I prevent it?
Like all vascular diseases, the best treatment for stroke is prevention, identifying and treating risk factors such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, mellitus, high cholesterol, smoking and alcoholism. Regular exercise of moderate intensity at least three times a week can help, as a diet rich in fish, calcium and potassium. And Follow the advice of your doctor, especially if you are hypertensive, diabetic or have heart problems.
How to identify stroke?
• Ask first for the person to smile. If she moves her face just to one side, it may be having a stroke;
• Request to lift the arms. If there are difficulties in removing one or two after waking up, one fall, seek medical help;
• Give an order or ask the person to repeat a phrase. If she does not respond to the request, may be suffering a stroke.
Signals that precede a stroke:
• Sudden and severe headache without apparent cause;
• Numbness in the arms and legs;
• Difficulty speaking and loss of balance;
• Decrease or sudden loss of strength in the face, arm or leg on the left or right of the body;
• Sudden change in sensitivity, with tingling in the face, arm or leg on one side of body;
• Sudden loss of vision in one eye or both;
• Acute amendment speech, including difficulty to articulate and express words or to understand the language;
• Instability, sudden and intense vertigo and imbalance associated with nausea or vomiting.
For most patients, after a struck there is a long journey of medication, physiotherapy, speech therapy and neuropsychological rehabilitation according to the functions that were lost and the age of the patient.